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Due to higher in-vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2 and its wider availability in the United States compared with chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine has been administered to hospitalized COVID patients on an uncontrolled basis in multiple countries, including in the United States.

One small study reported that hydroxychloroquine alone or in combination with azithromycin reduced detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in upper respiratory tract specimens compared with a non-randomized control group but did not assess clinical benefit [ 7 ]. Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin are associated with QT prolongation and caution is advised when considering these drugs in patients with chronic medical conditions e. Hydroxychloroquine is currently under investigation in clinical trials for pre-exposure or post-exposure prophylaxis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and treatment of patients with mild, moderate, and severe COVID In the United States, several clinical trials of hydroxychloroquine for prophylaxis or treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection are planned or will be enrolling soon.

Lopinavir-ritonavir did not show promise for treatment of hospitalized COVID patients with pneumonia in a recent clinical trial in China [ 8 ]. This trial was underpowered, and lopinavir-ritonavir is under investigation in a World Health Organization study. Several other drugs are under investigation in clinical trials or are being considered for clinical trials of prophylaxis or treatment of COVID in the United States and worldwide. Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link. Section Navigation.

Minus Related Pages. Remdesivir Remdesivir is an investigational intravenous drug with broad antiviral activity that inhibits viral replication through premature termination of RNA transcription and has in-vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2 and in-vitro and in-vivo activity against related betacoronaviruses [ ].

Hydroxychloroquine and Chloroquine

The manufacturer is currently transitioning the provision of emergency access to remdesivir from individual compassionate use requests to an expanded access program. The expanded access program for the United States is under rapid development. Other Drugs Lopinavir-ritonavir did not show promise for treatment of hospitalized COVID patients with pneumonia in a recent clinical trial in China [ 8 ]. Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus nCoV in vitro.

Cell Res.


Comparative therapeutic efficacy of remdesivir and combination lopinavir, ritonavir, and interferon beta against MERS-CoV. Nat Commun. Broad-spectrum antiviral GS inhibits both epidemic and zoonotic coronaviruses. Sci Transl Med.

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Int J Antimicrob Agents. Some states have been forced to limit dispensing them. Doctors have known for decades that chloroquine and related medications like hydroxychloroquine and mefloquine can cause psychiatric side effects even after just one dose. While some patients experience mild anxiety, insomnia and nightmares, others have severe symptoms like personality changes, paranoia, hallucinations and even suicidal thoughts. She said they were using these waves to spy on her and to destroy her brain.

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Her doctors were puzzled — until they discovered that she had recently started on chloroquine to treat her arthritis. Once the medication was stopped, she fully recovered. Mental health changes are not the only risks we see. If the QT interval becomes too long, it can lead to abnormal rhythms, or arrhythmias, where the heart starts beating out of control. This change can cause death.

The patients at risk of this are the same ones who are most vulnerable to Covid the elderly and those with chronic illnesses. All medications have side effects, and nothing is without risk.

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This is why our F. We rely on the F. As we get more data, things may change. Given this uncertainty, the medications should be used only in carefully considered serious situations, not by dentists and non-physicians. This is especially true given the risk of psychiatric symptoms during quarantine and self-isolation. We have already seen an increased use of suicide hotlines and the veterans crisis line. Discussions of anxiety and insomnia are all over social media.